Other IEA studies

Early Childhood Education Study

Aimed to explore, describe, and analyze the provision of early childhood education across countries and how it contributes to children's outcomes. It provided a framework for countries to benchmark their early childhood education systems in an international context.

The target population for the assessment module consisted of children attending center-based education and care in the final year of ISCED 0.

The international study coordination of ECES was managed by a consortium consisting of four partner institutions: IEA Data Processing and Research Center, National Foundation for Educational Research in England and Wales, Centre for Research in Early Childhood in England, and IEA Secretariat. These institutions have worked in cooperation with the national research coordinators of participating countries.

For more information, including the in-depth report, please visit the ECES website.

Major publication

Bertram, T. & Pascal, C., with Cummings, A., Delaney, S., Ludlow, C., Lyndon, H., Hencke, J., Kostek, M., Knoll, S., & Stancel-Piatak, A. (2016). Early Childhood Policies and Systems in Eight Countries. Findings from IEA's Early Childhood Education Study. Cham: Springer. ISBN 978-3-319-39846-4


Teacher Education and Development Study in Mathematics

TEDS-M examined how different countries prepare their teachers to teach mathematics in primary and lower-secondary schools. The study gathered information on various characteristics of teacher education institutions, programs, and curricula. It also collected information on the opportunities to learn within these contexts, and on future teachers’ knowledge and beliefs about mathematics and learning mathematics. The main data collection was carried out in 2007–2008.

TEDS-M surveyed teacher education institutions, educators of future teachers, and future teachers (primary and secondary levels).

The international study coordination of TEDS-M was managed by a consortium of two partner institutions: the international study center at Michigan State University and the Australian Council for Educational Research, working in close cooperation with the IEA, and the national centers of participating countries.

Major publications

Brese, F., & Tatto, M.T. (Eds.). (2012). TEDS-M 2008 user guide for the international database. Amsterdam: IEA.

Carnoy, M., Beteille, T., Brodziak, I., Loyalka, P., & Luschei, T. (2009). Teacher Education and Development Study in Mathematics (TEDS-M): Do countries paying teachers higher relative salaries have higher student mathematics achievement? Amsterdam: IEA.

Ingvarson, L., Schwille, J., Tatto, M.T., Rowley, G., Peck, R., & Senk, S.L. (2013). An analysis of teacher education context, structure, and quality-assurance arrangements in TEDS-M countries: Findings from the IEA Teacher Education and Development Study in Mathematics (TEDS-M). Amsterdam: IEA.

Schwille, J., Ingvarson, L., & Holdgreve-Resendez, R. (Eds.). (2013). TEDS-M encyclopedia: A guide to teacher education context, structure, and quality assurance in 17 countries. Findings from the IEA Teacher Education and Development Study in Mathematics (TEDS-M). Amsterdam: IEA.

Tatto, M.T. (Ed.). (2013). The Teacher Education and Development Study in Mathematics (TEDS-M): Policy, practice, and readiness to teach primary and secondary mathematics in 17 countries. Technical report. Amsterdam: IEA.

Tatto, M.T., Schwille, J., Senk, S.L., Ingvarson, L., Peck, R., & Rowley, G. (2008). Teacher Education and Development Study in Mathematics (TEDS-M): Policy, practice, and readiness to teach primary and secondary mathematics. Conceptual framework. Amsterdam: IEA.

Tatto, M.T., Schwille, J., Senk, S.L., Ingvarson, L., Rowley, G., Peck, R., Bankov, K., Rodriguez, M., & Reckase, M. (2012). Policy, practice, and readiness to teach primary and secondary mathematics in 17 countries: Findings from the IEA Teacher Education and Development Study in Mathematics (TEDS-M). Amsterdam: IEA.


Second Information Technology in Education Study 2006

SITES 2006 focused on the role of information and communication technology (ICT) in teaching and learning in mathematics and science classrooms. It examined how teachers and students were using ICT at this time, and investigated the extent to which certain pedagogical practices considered conducive to the development of “21st century” skills were present.

Analyses of the data endeavored to identify conditions at the system, school, and teacher level that were associated with different pedagogical practices and different ways of using ICT for teaching and learning. SITES 2006 also provided an opportunity to examine changes in pedagogy and ICT use since the application of SITES Module 1.

SITES 2006 consisted of two survey components: a survey of schools (school principals and technology coordinators), and a survey of mathematics and science teachers of students in the eighth grade.

SITES 2006 was managed at the international level by a consortium, consisting of the international coordinating center at the University of Twente, the University of Hong Kong, and the IEA, working in close cooperation with the national centers of participating countries.

For more information, please visit SITES 2006.

Major publications

Brese, F., & Carstens, R. (Eds.). (2009). Second Information Technology in Education Study: SITES 2006 user guide for the international database. Amsterdam: IEA.

Carstens, R., & Pelgrum, W.J. (Eds.). (2009). Second Information Technology in Education Study: SITES 2006 technical report. Amsterdam: IEA.

Law, N., Pelgrum, W. J., & Plomp, T. (Eds.). (2008). Pedagogy and ICT use in schools around the world: Findings from the IEA SITES 2006 study. Hong Kong: CERC-Springer.

Plomp, T., Anderson, R.E., Law, N., & Quale, A. (Eds.). (2009). Cross-national information and communication technology: Policies and practices in education (rev. 2nd ed.). Charlotte, NC: Information Age Publishing.


Second Information Technology in Education Study Module 2

SITES-M2 was a qualitative study of innovative pedagogical practices using information and communication technologies (ICT). National research teams in each of the participating countries applied a common set of case study methods to collect and analyze data from classrooms in primary, lower-secondary, and upper-secondary schools.

The data collected included the pedagogical practices of teachers and learners, the role of ICT in these practices, and the contextual factors supporting and influencing them. Various means were used to collect data from multiple sources for each case. These means included questionnaires for school principals and technology coordinators, interviews with individuals or groups, classroom observations, and supporting materials (such as teacher lesson plans).

Case selection and data collection took place in all participating countries in 2001. For more information, please visit the SITES-M2 webpage.

Major publications

Kozma, R.B. (Ed.). (2003). Technology, innovation, and educational change: A global perspective. A report of the Second Information Technology in Education Study Module 2. Eugene, OR: ISTE.

Plomp, T., Anderson, R.E., Law, N., & Quale, A. (Eds.). (2003). Cross-national information and communication technology policies and practices in education. Greenwich, CT: Information Age Publishing.


Second Information Technology in Education Study Module 1

The aim of SITES-M1 was to help countries estimate how their current position on using information and communication technology (ICT) in education fared relative to other countries’ use of ICT in education. SITES-M1 examined, among other aspects, the number of students per computer used for instruction, the extent to which schools had access to the internet for instructional purposes, and the extent to which ICT was contributing to changes in approaches to pedagogy. The data were collected in 1998–1999.

The study surveyed school principals and technology coordinators from a representative sample of computer-using schools from at least one of the following educational levels in each country: primary, lower secondary, and upper secondary.

The international coordination center was the University of Twente, Enschede, the Netherlands, working in close cooperation with the IEA, and the national centers of participating countries.

For more information, please visit the SITES-M1 webpage.

Major publication

Pelgrum, W.J., & Anderson, R.E. (Eds.). (2001). ICT and the emerging paradigm for life-long learning: An IEA educational assessment of infrastructure, goals, and practices in twenty-six countries (2nd ed.). Amsterdam: IEA.


Civic Education Study

CIVED represented the largest and most rigorous study of civic education conducted internationally up to that time. The assessment covered the content domains of democracy and citizenship, national identity, and social cohesion and diversity. Questionnaires were administered to teachers and school principals, as well as students.

Phase 1 of the study was conducted in 1996–1997. Phase 2 data were collected in 1999 (standard population) and 2000 (optional population). The target population included all students enrolled on a fulltime basis in the grade that contained the most 14-year-old students at the time of testing (eighth grade in the majority of countries). Some of the participating countries conducted an additional optional survey of upper-secondary school students (ages 17–19).

The international coordinating center was Humboldt University of Berlin, working in close cooperation with the IEA, and the national centers of participating countries.

For more information, including in-depth reports and analyses, please visit the CIVED website.

Major publications

Amadeo, J.-A., Torney-Purta, J., Lehmann, R., Husfeldt, V., & Nikolova, R. (2002). Civic knowledge and engagement: An IEA study of upper secondary students in sixteen countries. Amsterdam: IEA.

Schulz, W., & Sibberns, H. (Eds.). (2004). IEA Civic Education Study technical report. Amsterdam: IEA.

Sibberns, H. (2005). IEA Civic Education Study user guide for the international database. Amsterdam: IEA.

Steiner-Khamsi, G., Torney-Purta, J., & Schwille, J. (Eds.). (2002). New paradigms and recurring paradoxes in education for citizenship: An international comparison. Oxford: Elsevier Science.

Torney-Purta, J., Lehmann, R., Oswald, H., & Schulz, W. (2001). Citizenship and education in twenty-eight countries: Civic knowledge and engagement at age fourteen. Amsterdam: IEA.

Torney-Purta, J., Schwille, J., & Amadeo, J.-A. (Eds.). (1999). Civic education across countries: Twenty-four national case studies from the IEA Civic Education Project. Amsterdam: IEA.


Language Education Study

Initially planned as a three-phase project, the Language Education Study aimed to describe the policies and curricula for language education and assess student achievement in language learning. Only Phase 1 on the policy context was completed. This focused on providing "national profiles" of language education in participating countries, including language policies, curricula, opportunities for language use and learning outside of school, and characteristics of teachers. In 1995, data were collected on four languages commonly taught as a school subject: English, French, German, and Spanish.

Information was gathered for two key points in secondary schooling: the end of compulsory schooling (15- to 16-year-old students in most countries) and the end of upper-secondary schooling (17- to 18-year-old students).

For more information, please visit the Language Education Study webpage.

Major publications

Dickson, P., & Cumming, A. (Eds.). (1996). Profiles of language education in 25 countries: Overview of Phase 1 of the IEA Language Education Study. Slough, UK: National Foundation for Educational Research.


Preprimary Project

The Preprimary project was a longitudinal study designed to explore the quality of life of preschool children in the various care and educational environments provided for them, and to assess how these environments affected their development. Phase 1 produced profiles of national policies on the care and education of young children, and applied a household survey to identify and characterize the major early childhood care and educational settings used by families with four-year-old children in each country. Phase 2 explored the impact of programmatic and familial factors on the development of children at age four using extensive observational and interview methods. Phase 3 completed the project by documenting how early experiences affected children's development at age seven. The purpose of this final phase was to examine the relationship between early childhood experiences at age four and children's cognitive and language development at age seven, all of which were relevant to primary school performance and success. The data for Phase 1 were collected in 1987–1989, Phase 2 in 1992, and Phase 3 in 1995–1997.

The study was conducted on over 5000 four-year-old children (with a follow-up at age seven) in nearly 2000 educational settings.

The International Coordinating Center was HighScope Educational Research Foundation.

For more information, please visit the Preprimary Project website.

Major publications

High/Scope Foundation. (1994). Sights and sounds of children: High/Scope international videotape series[Set of 15 videotapes]. Ypsilanti, MI: High/Scope Press.

Montie, J.E., Xiang, Z., & Schweinhart, L.J. (Eds.). (2007). The role of preschool experience in children's development: Longitudinal findings from 10 countries. The IEA Preprimary Project Phase 3. Ypsilanti, MI: High/Scope Press.

Olmsted, P.P., & Montie, J. (Eds.). (2001). Early childhood settings in 15 countries: What are their structural characteristics? Ypsilanti, MI: High/Scope Press.

Olmsted, P.P., & Weikart, D.P. (Eds.). (1989). How nations serve young children: Profiles of child care and education in 14 countries. Ypsilanti, MI: High/Scope Press.

Olmsted, P.P., & Weikart, D.P. (Eds.) (1994). Families speak: Early childhood care and education in 11 countries. The IEA Preprimary Project Phase 1 [Softcover edition]. Ypsilanti, MI: High/Scope Press.

Olmsted, P.P., & Weikart, D.P. (Eds.) (1995). The IEA Preprimary Study: Early childhood care and education in 11 countries [Hardcover edition]. Oxford: Pergamon Press.

Weikart, D.P. (Ed.). (1999). What should young children learn? Teacher and parent views in 15 countries. The IEA Preprimary Project Phase 2. Ypsilanti, MI: High/Scope Press.

Weikart, D.P., Olmsted, P.P., & Montie, J. (Eds.). (2003). A world of preschool experience: Observations in 15 countries. The IEA Preprimary Project Phase 2. Ypsilanti, MI: High/Scope Press.


Computers in Education Study

COMPED described and analyzed various aspects of the introduction and use of computers in schools in the participating countries.

Stage 1 of the study was a descriptive survey that investigated computer use at the elementary, lower-secondary, and upper-secondary levels.

Stage 2 of the study consisted of two parts. During the first part, which was a follow-up of Stage 1, participating countries used a school questionnaire to collect data that enabled a longitudinal study of trends. The second part involved an assessment of the effects of schools, teachers, and classroom practices on student outcomes (functional computer knowledge, skills, and attitudes) in the domain of computer use in schools. During Stage 2, countries also collected data from students via a functional information technology test, attitude questionnaire, and background questionnaire.

The COMPED Stage 1 data collection occurred in 1989 and Stage 2 in 1992. The populations of interest were students in the grades in which the modal age was 10 years and 13 years (fifth and eighth grades, respectively, in most countries), and students in the final year of secondary education.

The international coordination center was the University of Twente, Enschede, the Netherlands, working in close cooperation with the IEA, and the national centers of participating countries.

For more information, please visit the COMPED webpage.

Major publications

Pelgrum, W.J., & Plomp, T. (1991). The use of computers in education worldwide: Results from the IEA ‘Computers in Education’ survey in 19 educational systems. Oxford: Pergamon Press.

Pelgrum, W.J., & Plomp, T. (Eds.). (1993). The IEA Study of Computers in Education: Implementation of an innovation in 21 education systems. Oxford: Pergamon Press.

Pelgrum, W.J., Reinen, I.A.M.J., & Plomp, T. (Eds.). (1993). Schools, teachers, students and computers: A cross-national perspective. IEA-Comped Study Stage 2. Enschede: University of Twente.

Plomp, T., Anderson, R.E., & Kontogiannopoulou-Polydorides, G. (Eds.). (1996). Cross national policies and practices on computers in education. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers.


Reading Literacy Study

This study examined levels of students’ reading literacy across countries, as well as the nature of reading instruction and the relationships between reading comprehension and aspects of home and school environment. The data were collected in 1990–1991. Two target populations were included in the study: nine-year-old students and 14-year-old students.

The international coordinating center for the Reading Literacy Study established within the Faculty of Education, University of Hamburg, Germany, worked in close cooperation with the IEA, and the national centers of participating countries.

Major publications

Binkley, M., Rust, K., & Williams, T. (Eds.). (1996). Reading literacy in an international perspective: Collected papers from the IEA Reading Literacy Study. Washington, DC: NCES.

Binkley, M., Rust, K., & Winglee, M. (Eds.). (1995). Methodological issues in comparative educational studies: The case of the IEA Reading Literacy Study. Washington, DC: NCES.

Elley, W.B. (1992). How in the world do students read? IEA Study of Reading Literacy. The Hague: IEA.

Elley, W.B. (Ed.). (1994). The IEA Study of Reading Literacy: Achievement and instruction in thirty-two school systems. Oxford: Pergamon Press.

Lundberg, I., & Linnakylä, P. (1993). Teaching reading around the world: IEA Study of Reading Literacy. The Hague: IEA.

Papanastasiou, C., & Froese, V. (2002). Reading literacy in 14 countries. Lefkosia: University of Cyprus.

Postlethwaite, T.N., & Ross, K.N. (1992). Effective schools in reading: Implications for educational planners. An exploratory study. The Hague: IEA.

Wagemaker, H. (Ed.). (1996). Are girls better readers? Gender differences in reading literacy in 32 countries. Amsterdam: IEA.

Wolf, R.M. (Ed.). (1995). The IEA Reading Literacy Study: Technical report. The Hague: IEA.


Written Composition Study

The Written Composition Study examined the teaching and learning of written composition in schools in order to identify associated beliefs and conventions. The study also endeavored to find factors that would explain differences and patterns in the performance of written composition and other outcomes, with particular attention paid to cultural background, curriculum, and teaching practices. Six types of writing were assessed (reflective, personal, philosophic, argumentative, persuasive, and literary) on the dimensions of style and tone, overall impression, content, and organization. Background information was gathered through questionnaires administered to students, teachers, and school principals.

Data were collected in 1984–1985, and the study included three target populations: students near the end of primary schooling (10- to 12-year-olds), students near the end of compulsory schooling (15- to 17-year-olds), and students near the end of academic secondary school (17- to 19-year-olds).

The Institute for Educational Research, University of Jyväskylä, Finland, working in close cooperation with the IEA, and the national centers of participating countries, served as the study’s international coordinating center.

Major publications

Gorman, T.P., Purves, A.C., & Degenhart, R.E. (Eds.). (1988). The IEA Study of Written Composition I: The international writing tasks and scoring scales. Oxford: Pergamon Press.

Purves, A.C. (Ed.). (1992). The IEA Study of Written Composition II: Education and performance in fourteen countries. Oxford: Pergamon Press.

Saari, H. (1991). Writing curricula in sixteen countries: International study in written composition—IEA. Jyväskylä: University of Jyväskylä.


Second International Science Study

The purpose of SISS was to examine science achievement and to study trends in science achievement since the First International Science Study (FISS). The student tests were developed for three age groups and included a number of different science topics. The science test was complemented by questionnaires for students, teachers, and school principals. In addition, countries participating in the study prepared a case study report on national science education.

Data were collected in 1983–1984, and three target populations were tested: 10-year-old students, 14-year-old students, and students in the final year of secondary school.

In late 1986, the IEA called on Neville Postlethwaite at the University of Hamburg, Germany, to raise funding for and to undertake the cleaning and analyses of the science data. He worked closely with John Keeves, the chair of the international project council for the study, and Malcom Rosier of the Australian Council for Educational Research, who was the study’s international coordinator.

Major publications

IEA. (1988). Science achievement in seventeen countries: A preliminary report. Oxford: Pergamon Press.

Keeves, J.P. (1992). Learning science in a changing world: Cross-national studies of science achievement, 1970 to 1984. The Hague: IEA.

Keeves, J.P. (Ed.). (1992). The IEA Study of Science III: Changes in science education and achievement, 1970 to 1984. Oxford: Pergamon Press.

Postlethwaite, T.N., & Wiley, D.E. (Eds.). (1992). The IEA Study of Science II: Science achievement in twenty-three countries. Oxford: Pergamon Press.

Rosier, M.J., & Keeves, J.P. (Eds.). (1991). The IEA Study of Science I: Science education and curricula in twenty-three countries. Oxford: Pergamon Press.


Classroom Environment Study

The Classroom Environment Study aimed to describe similarities and differences in the nature of teaching in classrooms, and to identify the teaching behaviors associated with better student achievement. Management practices and instructional practices were identified for inclusion in the study. The study was longitudinal, with student learning outcomes measured at two points in time. Each national center selected one or more learning units that required a specified period of time to teach to students, with a pre-test and post-test administered at the beginning and end of the unit(s), respectively. Both the pre-test and post-test were constructed nationally, according to the specifications prepared by the international study center. Between the two test administrations, each classroom included in the study was observed from six to ten times at regular intervals. The data were collected in 1981–1983.

Probability sampling was not used to select samples of schools and classrooms. Across the participating countries, the number of schools in which the study was conducted ranged from nine to 77, and the number of classrooms ranged from 18 to 87, with three subjects represented (mathematics, science, and history). The grade levels involved ranged from the fifth grade to the eighth grade.

Major publications

Anderson, L.W., Ryan, D.W., & Shapiro, B.J. (Eds.). (1989). The IEA Classroom Environment Study. Oxford: Pergamon Press.


Second International Mathematics Study

SIMS examined mathematics education on three dimensions: curricula, classroom practices, and student achievement. At middle school level, student performance was measured and reported separately in arithmetic, algebra, geometry, measurement, and descriptive statistics. At the final year of secondary school, student performance was assessed in sets, relations and functions, number systems, algebra, geometry, elementary functions and calculus, probability and statistics, finite mathematics, computer science, and logic. The study also administered student, teacher, school, and national context questionnaires. Some features of SIMS replicated features of the First International Mathematics Study (FIMS).

SIMS also incorporated a detailed longitudinal component in eight countries, in order to investigate what mathematics were being taught and learned during the school year. This component employed additional teacher questionnaires and a pretest and a posttest for students.

Data were collected in 1980–1982. The target populations for the study were 13-year-old students and students in the final year of secondary school who were studying mathematics as a substantial part of their academic program.

The Department of Education in Wellington, New Zealand, served as the study’s international study center.

Major publications

Burstein, L. (Ed.). (1993). The IEA Study of Mathematics III: Student growth and classroom processes. Oxford: Pergamon Press.

Garden, R.A. (1987). Second IEA Mathematics Study: Sampling report. Washington, DC: Center for Education Statistics.

Jaji, G. (1986). Second International Mathematics Study: The use of calculators and computers in mathematics classes in twenty countries—a source document. Washington, DC: Center for Education Statistics.

Livingstone, I.D. (1986). Second International Mathematics Study: Perceptions of the intended and implemented mathematics curriculum. Washington, DC: Center for Education Statistics.

Pelgrum, W.J., Eggen, T., & Plomp, T. (1986). Second International Mathematics Study: The implemented and attained mathematics curriculum—a comparison of eighteen countries. Washington, DC: Center for Education Statistics.

Robitaille, D.F., & Garden, R.A. (Eds.). (1989). The IEA Study of Mathematics II: Contexts and outcomes of school mathematics. Oxford: Pergamon Press.

Travers, K.J., & Westbury, I. (1989). The IEA Study of Mathematics I: Analysis of mathematics curricula. Oxford: Pergamon Press.

Travers, K.J., & Westbury, I. (1989). Supplement to the IEA Study of Mathematics I: Analysis of mathematics curricula. Urbana, IL: University of Illinois.

Westbury, I., & Travers, K. (1990). Second International Mathematics Study: Studies. Urbana, IL: University of Illinois.

Wolfe, R.G. (1987). Second International Mathematics Study: Training manual for use of the databank of the longitudinal, classroom process surveys for Population A in the IEA Second International Mathematics Study. Washington, DC: Center for Education Statistics.


Six Subject Survey: Civic Education

The aim of this study was to investigate how and to what extent education systems were achieving citizenship education objectives and what other influences beside the school (such as family, mass media, or friends) were important in this regard. One of the major issues addressed was whether a single quality, that of the ‘good citizen’, could be identified, or whether there were several different and independent civic attitudes. The research instruments included a knowledge test and questionnaire to measure the affective and behavioral aspects of student outcomes, as well as background questionnaires for students, teachers, and school principals.

Click here to learn more abour this study.

The study was carried out as part of the Six Subject Survey, which also investigated achievement in English as a foreign languageFrench as a foreign languageliterature educationreading comprehension, and science. The data were collected in 1970–1971.The target populations were 10-year-old students, 14-year-old students, and students in the final year of secondary school.

Major publications

Bloom, B.S. (1969). Cross-national study of educational attainment: Stage I of the I.E.A. investigation in six subject areas (Vols. 1–2). Washington, DC: Office of Education (DHEW).

Oppenheim, A.N., & Torney, J. (1974). The measurement of children’s civic attitudes in different nations. Stockholm: Almqvist & Wiksell.

Passow, A.H., Noah, H.J., Eckstein, M.A., & Mallea, J.R. (1976). The national case study: An empirical comparative study of twenty-one educational systems. Stockholm: Almqvist & Wiksell.

Peaker, G.F. (1975). An empirical study of education in twenty-one countries: A technical report. Stockholm: Almqvist & Wiksell.

Torney, J.V., Oppenheim, A.N., & Farnen, R.F. (1975). Civic education in ten countries: An empirical study. Stockholm: Almqvist & Wiksell.

Walker, D.A. (1976). The IEA Six Subject Survey: An empirical study of education in twenty-one countries. Stockholm: Almqvist & Wiksell.


Six Subject Survey: Literature Education

This study assessed the influence of schools and literature teachers on the achievement of their students. The test included measures of students’ responses to specific literary texts and their level of comprehension of those texts. Attitudes and interests in relation to literature were also investigated. Student, teacher, and school questionnaires collected data about factors associated with student achievement. The study was carried out as part of the Six Subject Survey, which also investigated achievement in civic educationEnglish as a foreign languageFrench as a foreign languagereading comprehension, and science. The data were collected in 1970–1971.

The target populations were 14-year-old students and students in the final year of secondary school.

Click here to learn more about this study.

Major publications

Bloom, B.S. (1969). Cross-national study of educational attainment: Stage I of the I.E.A. investigation in six subject areas (Vols. 1–2). Washington, DC: Office of Education (DHEW).

Passow, A.H., Noah, H.J., Eckstein, M.A., & Mallea, J.R. (1976). The national case study: An empirical comparative study of twenty-one educational systems. Stockholm: Almqvist & Wiksell.

Peaker, G.F. (1975). An empirical study of education in twenty-one countries: A technical report. Stockholm: Almqvist & Wiksell.

Purves, A.C. (1973). Literature education in ten countries: An empirical study. Stockholm: Almqvist & Wiksell.

Walker, D.A. (1976). The IEA Six Subject Survey: An empirical study of education in twenty-one countries. Stockholm: Almqvist & Wiksell.


Six Subject Survey: Reading Comprehension

This study adopted, as measures of verbal ability, a test of reading comprehension, a brief test of reading speed, and a brief test of word knowledge. The instruments included a reading comprehension test for students and questionnaires for students, teachers, and school principals. The study was carried out as part of the Six Subject Survey, which also investigated achievement in civic educationEnglish as a foreign languageFrench as a foreign languageliterature education, and science. The data were collected in 1970–1971, and the target populations for the study were 10-year-old students, 14-year-old students, and students in the final year of secondary school.

Click here to learn more about this study. 

Major publications

Bloom, B.S. (1969). Cross-national study of educational attainment: Stage I of the I.E.A. investigation in six subject areas (Vols. 1–2). Washington, DC: Office of Education (DHEW).

Passow, A.H., Noah, H.J., Eckstein, M.A., & Mallea, J.R. (1976). The national case study: An empirical comparative study of twenty-one educational systems. Stockholm: Almqvist & Wiksell.

Peaker, G.F. (1975). An empirical study of education in twenty-one countries: A technical report. Stockholm: Almqvist & Wiksell.

Thorndike, R.L. (1973). Reading comprehension education in fifteen countries: An empirical study. Stockholm: Almqvist & Wiksell.

Walker, D.A. (1976). The IEA Six Subject Survey: An empirical study of education in twenty-one countries. Stockholm: Almqvist & Wiksell.


Six Subject Survey: English as a Foreign Language

Assessed performance in reading, listening, speaking, and writing. The study also investigated factors associated with the learning of English as a foreign language. The student test was complemented by questionnaires for students, teachers, and school principals. The study was carried out as part of the Six Subject Survey, which, in addition to English and French as a foreign language, investigated achievement in civic educationliterature educationreading comprehension, and science. The data collection occurred in 1970–1971.

The target populations were 14-year-old students and students in the final year of secondary school.

To learn more about this study, click here

Major publications

Bloom, B.S. (1969). Cross-national study of educational attainment: Stage I of the I.E.A. investigation in six subject areas (Vols. 1–2). Washington, DC: Office of Education (DHEW).

Lewis, E.G., & Massad, C.E. (1975). The teaching of English as a foreign language in ten countries. Stockholm: Almqvist & Wiksell.

Passow, A.H., Noah, H.J., Eckstein, M.A., & Mallea, J.R. (1976). The national case study: An empirical comparative study of twenty-one educational systems. Stockholm: Almqvist & Wiksell.

Peaker, G.F. (1975). An empirical study of education in twenty-one countries: A technical report. Stockholm: Almqvist & Wiksell.

Walker, D.A. (1976). The IEA Six Subject Survey: An empirical study of education in twenty-one countries. Stockholm: Almqvist & Wiksell.


Six Subject Survey: French as a Foreign Language

Assessed performance in reading, listening, speaking, and writing. The study also investigated factors associated with the learning of French as a foreign language.

Two types of writing tests were used. The first could be reliably scored, being of an objective or quasi-objective nature. The second involved directed composition. Background information was collected through student, teacher, and school questionnaires. The study was carried out as part of the Six Subject Survey, which also investigated achievement in civic educationEnglish as a foreign languageliterature educationreading comprehension, and science. The data were collected in 1970–1971.

The target populations were 14-year-old students and students in the final year of secondary school.

To learn more about this study, click here.

Major publications

Bloom, B.S. (1969). Cross-national study of educational attainment: Stage I of the I.E.A. investigation in six subject areas (Vols. 1–2). Washington, DC: Office of Education (DHEW).

Carroll, J.B. (1975). The teaching of French as a foreign language in eight countries. Stockholm: Almqvist & Wiksell.

Passow, A.H., Noah, H.J., Eckstein, M.A., & Mallea, J.R. (1976). The national case study: An empirical comparative study of twenty-one educational systems. Stockholm: Almqvist & Wiksell.

Peaker, G.F. (1975). An empirical study of education in twenty-one countries: A technical report. Stockholm: Almqvist & Wiksell.

Walker, D.A. (1976). The IEA Six Subject Survey: An empirical study of education in twenty-one countries. Stockholm: Almqvist & Wiksell.


First International Science Study

FISS focused on three fields of science: biology, chemistry, and physics. The study was concerned not only with student achievement across the domain of science, but also with methods of teaching, students’ attitudes, and the development of students’ practical skills and understanding of the nature of science. Instruments included student tests and student, teacher, and school questionnaires. The study was conducted as part of the Six Subject Survey, which also investigated achievement in civic educationEnglish as a foreign languageFrench as a foreign languageliterature education, and reading comprehension.

Data collection occurred in 1970–1971, and the target populations were 10-year-old students, 14-year-old students, and students in the final year of secondary school. Students specializing in a particular science subject were also tested.

Major publications

Bloom, B.S. (1969). Cross-national study of educational attainment: Stage I of the I.E.A. investigation in six subject areas (Vols. 1–2). Washington, DC: Office of Education (DHEW).

Comber, L.C., & Keeves, J.P. (1973). Science education in nineteen countries: An empirical study. Stockholm: Almqvist & Wiksell.

Passow, A.H., Noah, H.J., Eckstein, M.A., & Mallea, J.R. (1976). The national case study: An empirical comparative study of twenty-one educational systems. Stockholm: Almqvist & Wiksell.

Peaker, G.F. (1975). An empirical study of education in twenty-one countries: A technical report. Stockholm: Almqvist & Wiksell.

Walker, D.A. (1976). The IEA Six Subject Survey: An empirical study of education in twenty-one countries. Stockholm: Almqvist & Wiksell.


First International Mathematics Study

FIMS investigated the outcomes of various school systems in a field of schooling that was, at the time, undergoing various reforms in many countries. Education systems had recently introduced a form of mathematics education called “new mathematics”. This form of mathematics education was the result of an international agreement on what essential new material should be included in mathematics curricula. FIMS’ research questions related to the organization of the education systems in participating countries, their mathematics curricula, and their methods of instruction. The study also examined how mathematics teaching and learning were being influenced by societal, scientific, and technological change. The research instruments included a student test, a “student opinion booklet” (designed to measure some affective outcomes of education), and background questionnaires (for students, teachers, school principals, and experts on education in the participating countries).

FIMS data were collected in 1964, and the study’s target populations were 13-year-old students and pre-university students.

Major publications

Husén, T. (Ed.). (1967). International study of achievement in mathematics: A comparison of twelve countries (Vols. 1–2). Stockholm: Almqvist & Wiksell.

Postlethwaite, N. (1967). School organization and student achievement: A study based on achievement in mathematics in twelve countries. Stockholm: Almqvist & Wiksell.


Pilot Twelve-Country Study

The Pilot Twelve-Country Study investigated the feasibility of undertaking more extensive assessments of educational achievement. Testing was carried out in five areas: mathematics, reading comprehension, geography, science, and nonverbal ability. The tests were originally prepared in English, French, or German. Background information, such as students’ gender and parents’ occupational status, was also gathered.

Data were collected in the participating countries in 1960, and the assessment was administered to 13-year-old students. In some countries, the national sample was only partially representative.

Major publication

Foshay, A.W., Thorndike, R.L., Hotyat, F., Pidgeon, D.A., & Walker, D.A. (1962). Educational achievements of thirteen-year-olds in twelve countries: Results of an international research project, 1959–1961. Hamburg: UNESCO Institute for Education.