TIMSS - Past Cycles

Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study 2015

TIMSS 2015, the sixth installment of the IEA’s Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study, revealed that grade 4 and grade 8 students’ mathematics and science achievement had improved, not only over the short term but also over the twenty years since the study began. The majority of countries participating in both TIMSS 1995 and in TIMSS 2015 had increased students’ achievement.

TIMSS 2015 reported overall achievement as well as results according to four international benchmarks (advanced, high, medium, and low), by major content domains (number, algebra, and geometry in mathematics, and earth science, biology, and chemistry in science), and by cognitive domains (knowing, applying, and reasoning). Like the previous TIMSS assessments (conducted in 1995199920032007, and 2011), the study collected detailed information about curriculum and curriculum implementation, instructional practices, and school resources.

The 2015 study marked the first time since previous TIMSS Advanced cycles (conducted in 1995 and 2008) that TIMSS together with TIMSS Advanced provided countries with a complete profile of mathematics and science learning from elementary through to the end of secondary school.

The TIMSS & PIRLS International Study Center, Lynch School of Education, Boston College served as the international study center for TIMSS 2015 and TIMSS Advanced 2015, working in close cooperation with the IEA, and the national centers of participating countries.

For more information, including in-depth reports and analyses, please visit the TIMSS 2015 website.

Major publications

Mullis, I.V.S., & Martin, M.O. (Eds.). (2013). TIMSS 2015 Assessment Frameworks. Chestnut Hill, MA: TIMSS & PIRLS International Study Center, Boston College.

Mullis, I.V.S., & Martin, M.O. (Eds.). (2014). TIMSS Advanced 2015 Assessment Frameworks. Chestnut Hill, MA: TIMSS & PIRLS International Study Center, Boston College.

Mullis, I.V.S., Martin, M.O., & Loveless, T. (2016). 20 Years of TIMSS: International Trends in Mathematics and Science Achievement, Curriculum, and Instruction. Chestnut Hill, MA: TIMSS & PIRLS International Study Center, Boston College. Retrieved from: http://timss2015.org/timss2015/wp-content/uploads/2016/T15-20-years-of-TIMSS.pdf

Mullis, I.V.S., Martin, M.O., Foy, P., & Hooper, M. (2016). TIMSS Advanced 2015 International Results in Advanced Mathematics and Physics. Chestnut Hill, MA: TIMSS & PIRLS International Study Center, Boston College. Retrieved from: http://timssandpirls.bc.edu/timss2015/international-results/advanced/

Mullis, I.V.S., Martin, M.O., Foy, P., & Hooper, M. (2016). TIMSS 2015 International Results in Mathematics. Chestnut Hill, MA: TIMSS & PIRLS International Study Center, Boston College. Retrieved from: http://timssandpirls.bc.edu/timss2015/international-results/

Martin, M.O., Mullis, I.V.S., Foy, P., & Hooper, M. (2016). TIMSS 2015 International Results in Science. Chestnut Hill, MA: TIMSS & PIRLS International Study Center, Boston College. Retrieved from: http://timssandpirls.bc.edu/timss2015/international-results/

Mullis, I.V.S., Martin, M.O., Goh, S., & Cotter, K. (Eds.) (2016). TIMSS 2015 Encyclopedia: Education Policy and Curriculum in Mathematics and Science. Chestnut Hill, MA: TIMSS & PIRLS International Study Center, Boston College. Retrieved from: http://timssandpirls.bc.edu/timss2015/encyclopedia/

Martin, M.O., Mullis, I.V.S., & Hooper, M. (Eds.). (2016). Methods and Procedures in TIMSS Advanced 2015. Chestnut Hill, MA: TIMSS & PIRLS International Study Center, Boston College. Retrieved from: http://timss.bc.edu/publications/timss/2015-a-methods.html

Martin, M.O., Mullis, I.V.S., & Hooper, M. (Eds.). (2016). Methods and Procedures in TIMSS 2015. Chestnut Hill, MA: TIMSS & PIRLS International Study Center, Boston College. Retrieved from http://timssandpirls.bc.edu/publications/timss/2015-methods.html

Foy, P. (2017). TIMSS Advanced 2015 User Guide for the International Database. Chestnut Hill, MA: TIMSS & PIRLS International Study Center, Boston College. Retrieved from: http://timssandpirls.bc.edu/timss2015/advanced-international-database/downloads/TA15_UserGuide.pdf

Foy, P. (2017). TIMSS 2015 User Guide for the International Database. Chestnut Hill, MA: TIMSS & PIRLS International Study Center, Boston College. Retrieved from: http://timssandpirls.bc.edu/timss2015/international-database/downloads/T15_UserGuide.pdf


Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study 2011

TIMSS 2011 assessed student achievement in mathematics and science at the fourth and eighth grades, as well as achievement trends over a 16-year period. The study gathered information about the contexts for learning mathematics and science from participating students, their teachers, and their school principals, as well as data about the mathematics and science curricula in each country. TIMSS 2011 was the fifth assessment in the series; the previous cycles of TIMSS were conducted in 199519992003, and 2007.

The TIMSS & PIRLS International Study Center, Lynch School of Education, Boston College served as the international study center for TIMSS 2011, working in close cooperation with the IEA, and the national centers of participating countries.

PIRLS 2011 was conducted in the same year. To learn more about this study, please click here. (Link to: Our Studies / PIRLS / Past cycles / PIRLS 2011).

For more information, including in-depth reports and analyses, please visit the TIMSS 2011 website.

Major publications

Foy, P. (2013). TIMSS and PIRLS 2011 user guide for the fourth grade combined international database. Chestnut Hill, MA: Boston College.

Foy, P., Arora, A., & Stanco, G.M. (Eds.). (2013). TIMSS 2011 user guide for the international database. Chestnut Hill, MA: Boston College.

Martin, M.O., & Mullis, I.V.S. (Eds.). (2012). Methods and procedures in TIMSS and PIRLS 2011. Chestnut Hill, MA: Boston College.

Martin, M.O., & Mullis, I.V.S. (Eds.). (2013). TIMSS and PIRLS 2011: Relationships among reading, mathematics, and science achievement at the fourth grade—implications for early learning. Chestnut Hill, MA: Boston College.

Martin, M.O., Mullis, I.V.S., Foy, P., & Stanco, G.M. (2012). TIMSS 2011 international results in science. Chestnut Hill, MA: Boston College.

Mullis, I.V.S., Martin, M.O., Foy, P., & Arora, A. (2012). TIMSS 2011 international results in mathematics. Chestnut Hill, MA: Boston College.

Mullis, I.V.S., Martin, M.O., Minnich, C.A., Stanco, G.M., Arora, A., Centurino, V.A.S., & Castle, C.E. (Eds.). (2012). TIMSS 2011 encyclopedia: Education policy and curriculum in mathematics and science (Vols. 1–2). Chestnut Hill, MA: Boston College.

Mullis, I.V.S., Martin, M.O., Ruddock, G.J., O’Sullivan, C.Y., & Preuschoff, C. (2009). TIMSS 2011 assessment frameworks. Chestnut Hill, MA: Boston College.

Mullis, I.V.S., Martin, M.O., Ruddock, G.J., O’Sullivan, C.Y., & Preuschoff, C. (2012). Quadro di riferimento di TIMSS 2011 [TIMSS 2011 assessment frameworks]. Frascati: INVALSI.

Mullis, I.V.S., Martin, M.O., Ruddock, G.J., O’Sullivan, C.Y., & Preuschoff, C. (2012). TIMSS 2011 Marcos de la evaluación [TIMSS 2011 assessment frameworks]. Madrid: INEE.


Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study Advanced 2008

TIMSS Advanced 2008 compared and contrasted the achievement of students enrolled in the most advanced secondary-school programs in mathematics and science. The study provided countries with an excellent opportunity to consider the effectiveness of their academic programs for students graduating from their secondary schools. The study also measured changes in students’ achievement between 1995 and 2008 for the countries that participated in both TIMSS Advanced cycles.

For the advanced mathematics assessment, the target population consisted of students in their final year of secondary school who were taking or had taken courses in advanced mathematics. For physics, the target population was final-year secondary students who were taking or had taken courses in physics.

The TIMSS & PIRLS International Study Center, Lynch School of Education, Boston College, United States, served as the international study center for TIMSS Advanced 2008, working in close cooperation with the IEA, and the national centers of participating countries.

For more information, including in-depth reports and analyses, please visit the TIMSS Advanced 2008 website.

Major publications

Arora, A., Foy, P., Martin, M.O., & Mullis, I.V.S. (Eds.). (2009). TIMSS Advanced 2008 technical report. Chestnut Hill, MA: Boston College.

Foy, P., & Arora, A. (Eds.). (2009). TIMSS Advanced 2008 user guide for the international database. Chestnut Hill, MA: Boston College.

Garden, R.A., Lie, S., Robitaille, D.F., Angell, C., Martin, M.O., Mullis, I.V.S., Foy, P., & Arora, A. (2006).TIMSS Advanced 2008 assessment frameworks. Chestnut Hill, MA: Boston College.

Garden, R.A., Lie, S., Robitaille, D.F., Angell, C., Martin, M.O., Mullis, I.V.S., Foy, P., & Arora, A. (2010).TIMSS Advanced 2008: Quadri di riferimento per la valutazione [TIMSS Advanced 2008 assessment frameworks]. Frascati: INVALSI.

Mullis, I.V.S., Martin, M.O., Robitaille, D.F., & Foy, P. (2009). TIMSS Advanced 2008 international report: Findings from IEA’s study of achievement in advanced mathematics and physics in the final year of secondary school. Chestnut Hill, MA: Boston College.


Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study 2007

Designed to align broadly with the mathematics and science curricula in participating countries, TIMSS 2007 assessed the degree to which students had learned the mathematics and science concepts and skills likely to have been taught in school. The study also measured trends in achievement for the countries that also participated in a previous TIMSS cycle. Student, teacher, and school questionnaires provided information about the contexts for learning mathematics and science, to aid in interpreting the achievement results and tracking changes in instructional practices.

TIMSS 2007 was the fourth TIMSS assessment. The three earlier assessments were administered in 20031999 and 1995. The study’s two target populations were fourth-grade and eighth-grade students.

The TIMSS & PIRLS International Study Center, Lynch School of Education, Boston College, United States, served as the international study center for TIMSS 2007, working in close cooperation with the IEA, and the national centers of participating countries.

For more information, including in-depth reports and analyses, please visit the TIMSS 2007 website.

Major publications

Foy, P., & Olson, J.F. (Eds.). (2009). TIMSS 2007 user guide for the international database. Chestnut Hill, MA: Boston College.

Martin, M.O., Mullis, I.V.S., & Foy, P. (2008). TIMSS 2007 international science report: Findings from IEA's Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study at the fourth and eighth grades. Chestnut Hill, MA: Boston College.

Mullis, I.V.S., Martin, M.O., & Foy, P. (2008). TIMSS 2007 international mathematics report: Findings from IEA’s Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study at the fourth and eighth grades. Chestnut Hill, MA: Boston College.

Mullis, I.V.S., Martin, M.O., Olson, J.F., Berger, D.R., Milne, D., & Stanco, G.M. (Eds.). (2008). TIMSS 2007 encyclopedia: A guide to mathematics and science education around the world (Vols. 1–2). Chestnut Hill, MA: Boston College.

Mullis, I.V.S., Martin, M.O., Ruddock, G.J., O’Sullivan, C.Y., Arora, A., & Erberber, E. (2005). TIMSS 2007 assessment frameworks. Chestnut Hill, MA: Boston College.

Olson, J.F., Martin, M.O., & Mullis, I.V.S. (Eds.). (2008). TIMSS 2007 technical report. Chestnut Hill, MA: Boston College.


Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study 2003

TIMSS 2003 endeavored to improve the teaching and learning of mathematics and science by providing data about student achievement in relation to different types of curricula, instructional practices, and school environments. Greater emphasis was placed in this cycle of TIMSS on questions and tasks that would offer better insight into the analytical, problem-solving, and inquiry skills of students. In addition to collecting achievement data, TIMSS 2003 also gathered extensive background information to address concerns about the quantity, quality, and content of instruction.

TIMSS 2003 provided countries that participated in previous assessments (19951999) with three TIMSS cycles of trends at the eighth grade and data over a second point in time at the fourth grade.

The TIMSS & PIRLS International Study Center, Lynch School of Education, Boston College, United States served as the international study center for TIMSS 2003, working in close cooperation with the IEA, and the national centers of participating countries.

For more information, including in-depth reports and analyses, please visit the TIMSS 2003 website.

Major publications

Martin, M.O. (Ed.). (2005). TIMSS 2003 user guide for the international database. Chestnut Hill, MA: Boston College.

Martin, M.O., Mullis, I.V.S., & Chrostowski, S.J. (Eds.). (2004). TIMSS 2003 technical report. Chestnut Hill, MA: Boston College.

Martin, M.O., Mullis, I.V.S., Gonzalez, E.J., & Chrostowski, S.J. (2004). TIMSS 2003 international science report: Findings from IEA’s Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study at the fourth and eighth grades. Chestnut Hill, MA: Boston College.

Mullis, I.V.S., Martin, M.O., & Foy, P. (2005). IEA’s TIMSS 2003 international report on achievement in the mathematics cognitive domains: Findings from a developmental project. Chestnut Hill, MA: Boston College.

Mullis, I.V.S., Martin, M.O., Gonzalez, E.J., & Chrostowski, S.J. (2004). TIMSS 2003 international mathematics report: Findings from IEA’s Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study at the fourth and eighth grades. Chestnut Hill, MA: Boston College.

Mullis, I.V.S., Martin, M.O., Smith, T.A., Garden, R.A., Gregory, K.D., Gonzalez, E.J., Chrostowski, S.J., & O’Connor, K.M. (2002). Marcos teóricos y especificaciones de evaluación de TIMSS 2003 [TIMSS assessment frameworks and specifications 2003]. Madrid: INCE.

Mullis, I.V.S., Martin, M.O., Smith, T.A., Garden, R.A., Gregory, K.D., Gonzalez, E.J., Chrostowski, S.J., & O’Connor, K.M. (2003). TIMSS assessment frameworks and specifications 2003 (2nd ed.). Chestnut Hill, MA: Boston College.


Third International Mathematics and Science Study Repeat: Video Study (1999)

Conducted in 1999, the TIMSS Video Study was a cross-national investigation of classroom mathematics and science teaching at the eighth grade that involved videotaping and analyzing teaching practices in over 1,000 eighth-grade classrooms in a variety of countries. A teacher questionnaire and examples of worksheets, textbook pages, student work, and other materials supplemented the videotapes. The videotaping was conducted during 1998–2000, with most of the sessions taking place in 1999. The TIMSS Video Study 1999 was complementary to the repeat of the Third International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS), also conducted in 1999.

One hundred schools were sampled in each country, with one eighth grade mathematics lesson and one eighth grade science lesson being videotaped in each school at some point during the school year.

TIMSS & PIRLS International Study Center, Lynch School of Education, Boston College, United States, served as the International Study Center for the TIMSS Video Study 1999, working in close cooperation with the IEA, and the national centers of participating countries.

For more information, including in-depth reports and analyses, please visit the websites of the TIMSS public use videos and NCES.

Major publications

Garnier, H.E., Lemmens, M., Druker, S.L., & Roth, K.J. (2011). Third International Mathematics and Science Study 1999 Video Study technical report, Volume 2: Science. Washington, DC: NCES.

Hiebert, J., Gallimore, R., Garnier, H., Givvin, K.B., Hollingsworth, H., Jacobs, J., Chui, A.M.-Y., Wearne, D., Smith, M., Kersting, N., Manaster, A., Tseng, E., Etterbeek, W., Manaster, C., Gonzales, P., & Stigler, J. (2003). Teaching mathematics in seven countries: Results from the TIMSS 1999 Video Study. Washington, DC: NCES.

Jacobs, J., Garnier, H., Gallimore, R., Hollingsworth, H., Givvin, K.B., Rust, K., Kawanaka, T., Smith, M., Wearne, D., Manaster, A., Etterbeek, W., Hiebert, J., & Stigler, J. (2003). Third International Mathematics and Science Study 1999 Video Study technical report, Volume 1: Mathematics. Washington, DC: NCES.

Roth, K.J., Druker, S.L., Garnier, H.E., Lemmens, M., Chen, C., Kawanaka, T., Rasmussen, D., Trubacova, S., Warvi, D., Okamoto, Y., Gonzales, P., Stigler, J., & Gallimore, R. (2006). Teaching science in five countries: Results from the TIMSS 1999 Video Study. Washington, DC: NCES.


Third International Mathematics and Science Study Repeat (1999)

The second in a series of IEA studies to measure trends in students’ mathematics and science achievement, TIMSS-Repeat, also known as TIMSS 1999, explored progress in eighth-grade students’ learning of mathematics and science, and provided countries that participated in the 1995 assessment with trend data for students at this level of education. Countries that participated in TIMSS 1995 at the fourth grade were able to compare the performance of fourth-graders in that year with the performance of these students as eighth-graders in 1999.

As in the 1995 study, TIMSS 1999 also investigated the contexts for learning mathematics and science in participating countries through the use of background questionnaires. Information was collected about education systems, curricula, instructional practices, and characteristics of students, teachers, and schools.

TIMSS 1999 assessed students in the eighth grade.

The TIMSS & PIRLS International Study Center, Lynch School of Education, Boston College, United States, served as the international study center for TIMSS-Repeat, working in close cooperation with the IEA, and the national centers of participating countries.

For more information, including in-depth reports and analyses, please visit the TIMSS 1999 website.

Major publications

Gonzalez, E.J., & Miles, J.A. (Eds.). (2001). TIMSS 1999 user guide for the international database. Chestnut Hill, MA: Boston College.

Martin, M.O., Gregory, K.D., & Stemler, S.E. (Eds.). (2000). TIMSS 1999 technical report. Chestnut Hill, MA: Boston College.

Martin, M.O., Mullis, I.V.S., Gonzalez, E.J., Gregory, K.D., Smith, T.A., Chrostowski, S.J., Garden, R.A., & O’Connor, K.M. (2000). TIMSS 1999 international science report: Findings from IEA's repeat of the Third International Mathematics and Science Study at the eighth grade. Chestnut Hill, MA: Boston College.

Mullis, I.V.S., Martin, M.O., Gonzalez, E.J., Gregory, K.D., Garden, R.A., O’Connor, K.M., Chrostowski, S.J., & Smith, T.A. (2000). TIMSS 1999 international mathematics report: Findings from IEA’s repeat of the Third International Mathematics and Science Study at the eighth grade. Chestnut Hill, MA: Boston College.


Third International Mathematics and Science Study 1995

TIMSS 1995, the largest and most ambitious international study of student achievement conducted up to that time, was the first cycle of assessments of trends in students’ mathematics and science achievement, now known as the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study. Questionnaires gathered extensive information about the teaching and learning of mathematics and science from students, as well as from their teachers and school principals. The study also investigated the mathematics and science curricula of the participating countries by conducting an analysis of curriculum guides, textbooks, and other curricular materials.

Many participating countries also selected subsamples of the fourth- and eighth-grade students who participated in the study to undertake a performance assessment. The assessment required the students to design experiments, manipulate materials, test hypotheses, and record findings when completing a range of mathematics and science tasks.

TIMSS 1995 was conducted at five grade levels: students enrolled in the two grades containing the largest proportion of nine-year-old students (third and fourth grade in most countries); students enrolled in the two grades containing the largest proportion of 13-year-old students (seventh and eighth grade in most countries); and students in their final year of secondary education.

As an additional option, countries could test two special subgroups of these students: students taking advanced courses in mathematics and/or students taking advanced courses in physics. All countries participated in the assessment at the seventh and eighth grades (mandatory population). The other grade levels were optional. The main data collection occurred in 1994–1995.

The TIMSS & PIRLS International Study Center, Lynch School of Education, Boston College, United States, served as the international study center for TIMSS 1995, working in close cooperation with the IEA, and the national centers of participating countries.

For more information, including in-depth reports and analyses, please visit the TIMSS 1995 website.

Major publications

Beaton, A.E., Martin, M.O., Mullis, I.V.S., Gonzalez, E.J., Smith, T.A., & Kelly, D.L. (1996). Science achievement in the middle school years: IEA’s Third International Mathematics and Science Study. Chestnut Hill, MA: Boston College.

Beaton, A.E., Mullis, I.V.S., Martin, M.O., Gonzalez, E.J., Kelly, D.L., & Smith, T.A. (1996).Mathematics achievement in the middle school years: IEA’s Third International Mathematics and Science Study. Chestnut Hill, MA: Boston College.

Gonzalez, E.J., & Smith, T.A. (Eds.). (1997). User guide for the TIMSS international database: Primary and middle school years. Chestnut Hill, MA: Boston College.

Gonzalez, E.J., Smith, T.A., & Sibberns, H. (Eds.). (1998). User guide for the TIMSS international database: Final year of secondary school. Chestnut Hill, MA: Boston College.

Harmon, M., Smith, T.A., Martin, M.O., Kelly, D.L., Beaton, A.E., Mullis, I.V.S., Gonzalez, E.J., & Orpwood, G. (1997). Performance assessment in IEA’s Third International Mathematics and Science Study. Chestnut Hill, MA: Boston College.

Howson, G. (1995). Mathematics textbooks: A comparative study of Grade 8 texts. TIMSS monograph no. 3. Vancouver: Pacific Educational Press.

Martin, M.O., & Kelly, D.L. (Eds.). (1996). Third International Mathematics and Science Study technical report, Volume I: Design and development. Chestnut Hill, MA: Boston College.

Martin, M.O., & Kelly, D.L. (Eds.). (1997). Third International Mathematics and Science Study technical report, Volume II: Implementation and analysis—primary and middle school years. Chestnut Hill, MA: Boston College.

Martin, M.O., & Kelly, D.L. (Eds.). (1998). Third International Mathematics and Science Study technical report, Volume III: Implementation and analysis—final year of secondary school. Chestnut Hill, MA: Boston College.

Martin, M.O., & Mullis, I.V.S. (Eds.). (1996). Third International Mathematics and Science Study: Quality assurance in data collection. Chestnut Hill, MA: Boston College.

Martin, M.O., Mullis, I.V.S., Beaton, A.E., Gonzalez, E.J., Smith, T.A., & Kelly, D.L. (1997). Science achievement in the primary school years: IEA’s Third International Mathematics and Science Study. Chestnut Hill, MA: Boston College.

Martin, M.O., Mullis, I.V.S., Gonzalez, E.J., Smith, T.A., & Kelly, D.L. (1999). School contexts for learning and instruction: IEA’s Third International Mathematics and Science Study. Chestnut Hill, MA: Boston College.

Martin, M.O., Mullis, I.V.S., Gregory, K.D., Hoyle, C., & Shen, C. (2000). Effective schools in science and mathematics: IEA’s Third International Mathematics and Science Study. Chestnut Hill, MA: Boston College.

Mullis, I.V.S., Martin, M.O., Beaton, A.E., Gonzalez, E.J., Kelly, D.L., & Smith, T.A. (1997).Mathematics achievement in the primary school years: IEA’s Third International Mathematics and Science Study. Chestnut Hill, MA: Boston College.

Mullis, I.V.S., Martin, M.O., Beaton, A.E., Gonzalez, E.J., Kelly, D.L., & Smith, T.A. (1998).Mathematics and science achievement in the final year of secondary school: IEA’s Third International Mathematics and Science Study. Chestnut Hill, MA: Boston College.

Mullis, I.V.S., Martin, M.O., Fierros, E.G., Goldberg, A.L., & Stemler, S.E. (2000). Gender differences in achievement: IEA’s Third International Mathematics and Science Study. Chestnut Hill, MA: Boston College.

Orpwood, G., & Garden, R.A. (1998). Assessing mathematics and science literacy: TIMSS monograph no. 4. Vancouver: Pacific Educational Press.

Robitaille, D.F. (Ed.). (1997). National contexts for mathematics and science education: An encyclopedia of the education systems participating in TIMSS. Vancouver: Pacific Educational Press.

Robitaille, D.F., & Beaton, A.E. (Eds.). (2002). Secondary analysis of the TIMSS data. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers.

Robitaille, D.F., Beaton, A.E., & Plomp, T. (Eds.). (2000). The impact of TIMSS on the teaching & learning of mathematics & science. Vancouver: Pacific Educational Press.

Robitaille, D.F., & Garden, R.A. (Eds.). (1996). Research questions & study design: TIMSS monograph no. 2. Vancouver: Pacific Educational Press.

Robitaille, D.F., Schmidt, W.H., Raizen, S., McKnight, C., Britton, E., & Nicol, C. (1993). Curriculum frameworks for mathematics and science: TIMSS monograph no. 1. Vancouver: Pacific Educational Press.

Schmidt, W.H., McKnight, C.C., Valverde, G.A., Houang, R.T., & Wiley, D.E. (1997). Many visions, many aims, Volume 1: A cross-national investigation of curricular intentions in school mathematics. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers.

Schmidt, W.H., Raizen, S.A., Britton, E.D., Bianchi, L.J., & Wolfe, R.G. (1997). Many visions, many aims, Volume 2: A cross-national investigation of curricular intentions in school science. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers.