TIMSS 1999 Video Study
Third International Mathematics and Science Study Repeat: Video Study
The IEA TIMSS 1999 Video Study was complementary to the repeat of the Third International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) that was conducted in 1999. The video study was a cross-national investigation of classroom mathematics and science teaching at the eighth grade.
The study involved videotaping and analyzing teaching practices in over 1,000 eighth grade classrooms in a variety of countries, in order to represent the full range of mathematics and science instruction at this level in each country. A teacher questionnaire and examples of worksheets, textbook pages, student work, and other materials supplemented the videotapes. The videotaping was conducted during 1998–2000, with most of the sessions taking place in 1999.
One hundred schools were sampled in each country, with one eighth grade mathematics lesson and one eighth grade science lesson being videotaped in each school at some point during the school year.
Participating education systems
Australia, Czech Republic, Hong Kong SAR, Japan, Netherlands, Switzerland, and United States.
Mathematics teaching at the eighth grade shared some general features across participating countries. On average, at least 80% of the lesson time was devoted to solving mathematical problems. Lessons were organized to include whole-class and individual work and, less frequently, small-group work. Lessons typically included a review of previous content as well as some attention to new content and, in the majority of cases, made use of textbooks or worksheets. Teachers in all countries talked more than their students (at a ratio of at least 8:1 words).
Differences between countries in teaching mathematics related to the introduction of new content, the way mathematical problems were presented in relation to one another, the topics covered, the procedural complexity of the mathematical problems, and the classroom practices regarding individual student work and homework. For instance, in the Czech Republic, there was a greater emphasis on reviewing previously learned content in the lessons (58% of lesson time) than in other countries, while lessons in Japan and Hong Kong placed greater emphasis on introducing new content (60% of lesson time) and practicing new content (37% of lesson time), respectively.
All five countries shared some general features of teaching science at the eighth grade, in three major domains: instructional organization, science content, and student behavior. For instance, whole-class seatwork occurred in at least 98% of science lessons in all countries, and during whole-class interactions, students participated in some form of discussion in at least 80% of the lessons. Some form of practical activity (e.g., showing objects to the class or working independently on science experiments) occurred in at least 72% of lessons across countries, although there were differences in the amount of time spent on these activities.
Differences in countries' approaches to science teaching were also observed in relation to the three domains. For example, teachers in Japan allocated more lesson time (93%) to developing new content than the teachers of other countries. Also, more time was allocated for independent practical (hands-on) activities in science lessons in Japan (34%) and Australia (33%), and for independent seatwork (reading, writing, discussing) activities in the Netherlands (28%) and the United States (23%).
Garnier, H.E., Lemmens, M., Druker, S.L., & Roth, K.J. (2011). Third International Mathematics and Science Study 1999 Video Study technical report, Volume 2: Science. Washington, DC: NCES.
Hiebert, J., Gallimore, R., Garnier, H., Givvin, K.B., Hollingsworth, H., Jacobs, J., Chui, A.M.-Y., Wearne, D., Smith, M., Kersting, N., Manaster, A., Tseng, E., Etterbeek, W., Manaster, C., Gonzales, P., & Stigler, J. (2003). Teaching mathematics in seven countries: Results from the TIMSS 1999 Video Study. Washington, DC: NCES.
Jacobs, J., Garnier, H., Gallimore, R., Hollingsworth, H., Givvin, K.B., Rust, K., Kawanaka, T., Smith, M., Wearne, D., Manaster, A., Etterbeek, W., Hiebert, J., & Stigler, J. (2003). Third International Mathematics and Science Study 1999 Video Study technical report, Volume 1: Mathematics. Washington, DC: NCES.
Roth, K.J., Druker, S.L., Garnier, H.E., Lemmens, M., Chen, C., Kawanaka, T., Rasmussen, D., Trubacova, S., Warvi, D., Okamoto, Y., Gonzales, P., Stigler, J., & Gallimore, R. (2006). Teaching science in five countries: Results from the TIMSS 1999 Video Study. Washington, DC: NCES.