ICCS. International Civic and Citizenship Education Study

Overview of ICCS

ICCS investigates the ways in which young people are prepared to undertake their roles as citizens in a world where contexts of democracy and civic participation continue to change. It reports on students’ knowledge and understanding of concepts and issues related to civics and citizenship, as well as their beliefs, attitudes, and behaviors with respect to this domain. The study collects a rich array of contextual data about the organization and content of civic and citizenship education in the curriculum, teacher qualifications and experiences, teaching practices, school environment and climate, and home and community support. Mindful of the new and emerging challenges evident in today’s world, the study aims to improve countries’ understanding of issues such as students’ role with respect to global citizenship, environmental sustainability, social interactions at school, and the use of new social media for civic engagement. The series of ICCS studies established and will continue to establish optional modules of regional or thematic nature so that countries can explore specific topics of common interest.

Target population

ICCS assesses students enrolled in the eighth grade, provided that the average age of students at this year level is 13.5 years or above. In countries where the average age of students in Grade 8 is less than 13.5 years, Grade 9 is defined as the target population.


A consortium of partner institutions runs ICCS: the Australian Council for Educational Research (ACER) in Melbourne serves as the international study center, the Laboratorio di Pedagogia Sperimentale (LPS) at Roma Tre University in Rome acts as an associate research center, and the IEA undertakes all project coordination work. These institutions work in close cooperation with the national research coordinators of participating countries.

International Civic and Citizenship Education Study 2016

ICCS 2016 was the fourth project conducted by the IEA in civic education (after ICCS 2009, CIVED 1999, and the Six Subject Survey conducted in 1971). Because the study was also the second cycle in the frame of the International Civic and Citizenship Education Study, it monitored trends in civic knowledge and engagement over seven years in the countries that participated in ICCS 2009. More information is available from the ICCS study website.

Participating countries

Belgium (Flemish), Bulgaria, Chile, Chinese Taipei, Colombia, Croatia, Denmark, Dominican Republic, Estonia, Finland, Germany (North Rhine-Westphalia), Hong Kong SAR, Italy, Korea, Latvia, Lithuania, Malta, Mexico, Netherlands, Norway, Peru, Russian Federation, Slovenia and Sweden.


2013–2014:  Framework revision and instrument development and field test
                        (October-November 2014).

2015:             Main data collection for the southern hemisphere countries
                       (October-December 2015)

2016:             Main data collection for the northern hemisphere countries
                       (March-April 2016)

2017:             Release of the International and European Reports (November 7)

2018:             Release of the Latin American Report (April 11)

Major publications

Schulz, W., Ainley, J., Fraillon, J., Losito, B., &. Agrusti, G. (2016). IEA International Civic and Citizenship Education Study 2016 Assessment Framework. Cham: Springer. ISBN 978-3-319-39356-8.

Schulz, W., Ainley, J., Fraillon, J., Losito, B., Agrusti, G., & Friedman, T. (2018) Becoming Citizens in a Changing World: IEA International Civic and Citizenship Education Study 2016 International Report. Cham: Springer. ISBN 978-3-319-73963-2.

Losito, B., Agrusti, G., Damiani, V., & Schulz, W. (2018) Young People's Perceptions of Europe in a Time of Change: IEA International Civic and Citizenship Education Study 2016 European Report. Cham: Springer. ISBN 978-3-319-73960-1.

Köhler, H., Weber, S., Brese, F., Schulz, W., & Carstens, R. (Eds.) (2018). ICCS 2016 User Guide for the  International Database. Amsterdam: IEA.

Schulz, W., Ainley, J., Cox, C., Friedman, T. (2018). Young People's Views of Government, Peaceful Coexistence, and Diversity in Five Latin American Countries: IEA International Civic and Citizenship Education Study 2016 Latin American Report. Cham: Springer. ISBN 978-3-319-95393-9.

Schulz, W., Carstens , R., Losito, B., & Fraillon, J. (Eds.) (2018) ICCS 2016 Technical Report. Amsterdam: IEA.